Performance of local and exotic hybrid tomato varieties in Bangladesh

Abu Saleh Mohammad Yousuf Ali1author iconemail, Md. Hamim Reza2, Muhammad Ali3, Md. Delwar Hossain4, Syed Tarik Mahabub5, Md. Ariful  Hoque6

1Scientific Officer (Horticulture), Regional Horticultural Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Chapainawabganj, Bangladesh
2Principal Scientific Officer (Horticulture), Agricultural Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Burirhat, Rangpur, Bangladesh
3Project Manager, Integrated Agricultural productivity Project (IAPP), Regional Project Implementation Unit (RPIU), Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), Rangpur, Bangladesh
4Department of Biochemestry, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
5Department of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
6Department of Agricultural Botany, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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ABSTRACT

Thirteen local and exotic hybrid tomato varieties viz. BARI F1 Tomato-4, BARI F1 Tomato-5, BARI F1 Tomato-6, BARI F1 Tomato-7, BARI F1 Tomato-8, Lali, Abhilash, Nayak, Moon, Delta, Mintoo super, Mintoo, and Sucsess were evaluated to see their performances during the winter season of 2012-2013. The design used was RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) having three replications. Unit plot size was 4.0mx1.0m maintaining the spacing 60cm x 50cm.The seeds were sown on 23 October 2012 and the seedlings were transplanted in the main field on 28 November 2012. Different parameters were studied in this study. All the characters showed significant differences among the varieties. The variety Nayak required maximum days for 50% flowering (77.00) while BARI F1 tomato-4 and 8 required minimum days for 50% flowering (60.00). The highest plant height was found in Success variety (134.3cm) and the lowest was found in BARI F1 Tomato-7 (103.3). The maximum number of fruits/cluster (5.83) was recorded from BARI F1 tomato-8 while minimum were recorded from Mintoo Super (4.40). BARI F1 tomato-4 variety produced the maximum number and weight of fruits/plant (87.6 and 2.30 kg) whereas BARI F1 tomato-6 and Delta produced minimum number and weight of fruits per plant (49.33 and 1.62 kg). The average fruit weight was maximum in BARI F1 tomato-5 (52.73 g) and minimum in Abhilash (41.97 g). The maximum fruit length and diameter (5.14 cm and 5.41 cm) were obtained from BARI tomato-7 and 5 whereas minimum fruit length and diameter (3.77 cm and 4.22 cm) were obtained from BARI F1 tomato-4 and Mintoo. The number of locule/fruit was found maximum in BARI F1 tomato-5 (4.33) while minimum no. of locule/fruit was found in Delta (2.13). The variety Nayak showed maximum thickness of pericarp (0.52cm) and BARI F1 tomato-8 showed minimum thickness of pericarp (0.34cm). The TSS percentage was found maximum (5.00) in BARI F1 tomato-8 and Mintoo while minimum TSS percentage (4.00) was found in BARI F1 tomato-8 and Mintoo Super. The shelf life of the fruits were maximum in Delta (18.00 days) and minimum in Abhilash (5.00 days). The variety Nayak required maximum days to 1st harvest (154.0) and BARI F1 tomato-4 and 8 required minimum days to 1st harvest (138.0). Yellow leaf curl virus was found maximum in the variety Lali (10.41%) and minimum (2.08%) in BARI F1 tomato-5 and Mintoo. No virus infected plants were found in the rest varieties. The yield ranged from 64.92 to 93.21 t/ha. The maximum yield (93.21t/ha) was obtained from BARI F1 tomato-4 while minimum yield was obtained from Delta (64.92 t/ha). Considering the results it can be concluded that most of the local varieties showed better performance compared to the exotic varieties.

Key words: Tomato, local, exotic variety, performance, Bangladesh

author iconCorresponding author. Tel.: +8801719440385
E-mail address: yousufr007@gmail.com (ASM Yousuf Ali)

INTRODUCTION

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a vegetable crop of considerable economic importance in Bangladesh. The fruit is relatively nutritious and contains moderate quantities of vitamin C (Vallareal, 1980). Tomato is widely grown in Bangladesh usually in winter season as normally prevailing temperature is congenial for its optimum growth and yield. With the increase of population the demand of tomato is increasing day by day. It is also possible to earn large amount of foreign currency by producing quality tomatoes and exporting them. The increasing demand can be met only with increase in production per unit area. The lower yield in tomato could be due to the fact that the traditional grown cultivars used by our farners are much sensitive to hot climate, which limits the production of the crop to early summer. Some cultivars have wider adoption while others provide a valuable source of variability in breeding material. The yielding ability of a genotype is the result of its interaction with the environment. The diverse variation of agro climatic condition in different regions of Bangladesh and the effect of global climate change can affect the growing conditions, thus the performance of different tomato varieties also varies greatly.

The advantages of hybrid tomato cultivars are uniformity in shape and size, increased vigor, early maturity, high yield and resistance to specific pests and pathogens (Allard, 1960; Hageman et al., 1967). Sudha- kar and Purushotham (2009) evaluated different F1 hybrids of tomato for higher yield. Under current scenario all hybrid seeds for vegetables including tomato for open field and off-season cultivation are being imported from different countries like Holland, Japan, USA and China etc. at a very high price. Recently farmers are cultivating hybrid tomato varieties which are mostly developed locally by different seed companies and some varieties are imported from abroad. BARI (Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute) has also developed some hybrid tomato varieties and released for commercial cultivation. However, the growth characters and nutritional quality of tomatoes varied significantly among different hybrids. Selection of high yield and nutritious hybrid tomatoes is important under existing agro climatic condition of Bangladesh for commercial purpose. It was therefore considered appropriate to make a comparative study of local as well as exotic cultivars of tomatoes for screening high yielding varieties suitable to our agro-climatic conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHOD

Study area

The experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Burirhat, Rangpur during winter season of 2012-2013.

Varieties and experimental design

Thirteen hybrid tomato varieties namely BARI F1 Tomato-4, BARI F1 Tomato-5, BARI F1 Tomato-6, BARI F1 Tomato-7, BARI F1 Tomato-8, Lali, Abhilash, Nayak, Moon, Delta, Mintoo super, Mintoo and Sucsess were included in the experiment. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications.

Spacing, plot size and others

Unit plot size was 4.0mx1.0m maintaining the spacing 60cm x 50cm.The seeds were sown on 23 October 2012 and the seedlings were transplanted in the main field on 28 November 2012.

Fertilization

Manures and fertilizers were applied at the rate of 5t cowdung, 550kg Urea, 450kg TSP, 250kg MP and 120kg Gypsum per hectare. Half of the cowdung was applied during final land preparation. The remaining half of the cowdung, the entire quantity of TSP, Gypsum and one third each of Urea and MP were applied during pit preparation. The rest of Urea and MP were applied in two equal installments as top dressing at 21 and 35 days of transplanting. Intercultural operations were done as and when necessary.

Data collection

Data were recorded on different parameters. The parameters included in the study were days to flowering (days from the date of sowing to first flowering were recorded), plant height in cm (when the plants attained the maximum height after which the plant ceased to grow for measurement the plant were selected randomly. number of fruits/plant (fruits harvested from ten plants of each treatment were counted and converted number of fruits per plant), number of fruits/cluster (total fruits number along with clusters were collected from a plant then converted number of fruits per cluster), Fruit length in cm (when the fruit attained certain maturity then the length was measured with the help of measuring tape), fruit diameter in centimeter (fruit diameter was measured with the help of vernier caliper, when the fruit reached up to certain maturity), average fruit weight in gm (measured with the help of balance and their average was taken), no of locule/fruit (matured fruits were cut by a sharp knife and locules number were counted), Thickness of pericarp in centimeter ( Thickness of pericarp was measured with the help of vernier caliper, when the fruit reached up to certain maturity), Total Soluble Solids in % (It was measured with the help of refractometer), Shelf  life in days (marketable shape, size and colour containing fruits were collected from each treatment then they are kept in a room with room temperature and days were counted just before rotten), days to 1st harvest(days from the date of sowing to first harvesting were recorded), virus infection in percentage ((it was calculated by the following formula:

Virus Infection (%)  =

Equation 1

and yield per plant in kg (It was taken in kg, when all the hybrids of tomato got maturity and at harvest stage per picking) and yield per hectare in kg (it was calculated by the following formula:

Equation 2

Statistical Analysis

The data collected was subjected to analysis of variance, and subsequently the significant means were separated by the least significant difference test by using the MSTATC software at 5% probability level.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The characters studied have been presented in table 1. All the characters showed significant differences among the varieties.

Days to 50% flowering

Data were collected for days to 50% flowering against each variety. The variety Nayak required maximum days (77.00) for 50% flowering followed by Mintoo Super (76.00) Abhilash and Delta (75.00) and Moon (74.00).  Among the exotic tomatoes only Lali (68.00), Mintoo (67.00) and Sucsess (68.00) showed lower required days to 50% flowering. Among the all varieties used in this study BARI F1 tomato-4 and BARI F1 Tomato-8 required minimum days (60.00) for 50% flowering. Other local varieties showed required days that do not differ significantly (p≤0.5) (table 1).

Plant height (cm)

The highest plant height was found in exotic Success variety (134.3) followed by moon (121.0), BARI F1 Tomato-6 (120.9), BARI F1 Tomato-4 and Mintoo (119), whereas lowest height was found in BARI F1 Tomato-7 (103.3).  Among the local varieties highest plant height was found in BARI F1 Tomato-6 (120.9) and lowest was found in BARI F1 Tomato-7 (103.3). On the other hand, among the exotic varieties the highest plant height was found in Success (134.3) and lowest was found in Delta (103.6). This study is in dissimilarity with the study of Hossain et al. (2004) where BARI F1 Tomato-7 showed highest height (113.4 cm) and lowest height showed by BARI F1 Tomato-8 (91.37cm). This variation might be due to variation in weather of the study region or variation in the planting time. The BARI Tomato 7 produced the tallest plant (109.4 cm) observed in a study by Ashrafuzzaman et al. (2010). BARI F1 Tomato-4 BARI F1 Tomato-6 showed and 92.13 and 125.43 cm average height in a study by Hassan et al. (2005).

Number of fruits per cluster and per plant

The maximum number of fruits/cluster (5.83) was recorded from BARI F1 tomato-8 which was statistically similar to two exotic varieties Lali and Moon, while minimum was recorded from Mintoo Super (4.40) which was statistically similar to most of the varieties studied here. The number of fruits per cluster was found 4.67 in this study whereas 5.66 in BARI tomato-4 in a study by Hasan et al. (2005).

BARI F1 tomato-4 variety showed significant variations among the varieties with a highest number of fruits per plant (87.6) whereas BARI F1 tomato-6 minimum number of fruits per plant (49.33). Among the exotic varieties only Minto showed higher number of 74.13 fruits per plant which is next to the number showed by local variety BARI F1 tomato-4. The number of fruits per plant was observed far higher that the study of Hasan et al. (2005) who found only 29.37 fruits per plant in BARI tomato-4 variety. The number of fruits per plant in BARI tomato-7 was 30.6 in a study by Ashrafuzzaman et al. (2010). The variation in number of fruits per plant was genotype dependent.

Weight of fruits/plant (kg) and. fruit weight (g)

The weight of BARI F1 Tomato-4 per plant was highest (2.30kg) among both local and exotic varieties which was statistically similar to Mintoo and Suceess whereas the lowest weight of total fruits per plant (1.62) was observed in Delta which was statistically similar to BARI F1 Tomato-7. The heaviest fruit (52.73 g) was found in BARI F1 tomato-5 (52.73 g). In contrast, the lightest fruit (41.97 g) was found in Abhilash, which was statistically similar to Lali and Nayak. The higher fruit weight was observed for same varieties by Hossain et al. (2004). The variation in individual fruit weight of different genotypes might be due to their different genotypic characters.

Fruit length and diameter

The maximum fruit length and diameter (5.14 cm and 5.41 cm) were obtained from BARI tomato-7 and 5 whereas minimum fruit length and diameter (3.77 cm and 4.22 cm) were obtained from BARI F1 tomato-4 and Mintoo.

Table 1
Performance of 13 local and exotic hybrid tomato varieties during 2012-13.

Name of varieties Days to 50% flowering Plant height at last harvest (cm) No. of fruits/ cluster No. of fruit/plant Wt. of fruits/plant (kg) Av. fruit wt. (g) Fruit length (cm)
Local varieties
BARI F1 Tomato-4 60.00c 119.5b 4.67cd 87.6a 2.30a 46.13a-d 3.77g
BARI F1 Tomato-5 67.00b 117.1b 4.73cd 52.4cd 2.19ab 52.73a 4.76a-e
BARI F1 Tomato-6 64.00bc 120.9b 4.77cd 49.33d 1.86de 50.03a-c 4.54c-f
BARI F1 Tomato-7 68.00b 103.3d 4.50cd 50.57cd 1.76ef 44.9b-d 5.14a
BARI F1 Tomato-8 60.00c 117.7b 5.83a 54.67cd 2.09a-c 45.30b-d 4.63b-e
Exotic varieties
Lali 68.00b 111.0c 5.20a-c 57.33cd 2.09a-c 47.9a-d 4.29ef
Abhilash 75.00a 110.9c 5.00b-d 59.93c 2.19a-c 41.97d 4.38d-f
Nayak 77.00a 109.1c 5.03b-d 60.47c 1.99b-d 42.60d 4.81a-d
Moon 74.00a 121.0b 5.10a-d 60.40c 1.94c-e 51.47ab 5.10ab
Delta 75.00a 103.6d 4.73cd 54.7cd 1.62f 44.97b-d 4.39c-f
Mintoo Super 76.00a 117.3b 4.40d 54.77cd 1.91c-e 46.23a-d 4.43c-f
Mintoo 67.00b 119.0b 5.57ab 74.13b 2.26a 43.7c-d 4.10fg
Success 68.00b 134.3a 5.03b-d 55.47cd 2.25a 45.10b-d 4.85a-c

Means followed by same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 5% level.

Other characteristics

The number of locule/fruit was found maximum in BARI F1 tomato-5 (4.33) while minimum no. of locule/fruit was found in Delta (2.13). The variety Nayak showed maximum thickness of pericarp (0.52cm) and BARI F1 tomato-8 showed minimum thickness of pericarp (0.34cm) (Table 2).

The TSS percentage was found maximum (5.00) in BARI F1 tomato-8 and Mintoo while minimum TSS percentage (4.00) was found in BARI F1 tomato-8 and Mintoo Super. The shelf life of the fruits was maximum in Delta (18.00 days) and minimum in Abhilash (5.00 days).

The variety Nayak required maximum days to 1st harvest (154.0) and BARI F1 tomato-4 and 8 required minimum days to 1st harvest (138.0).

Yellow leaf curl virus was found maximum in the variety Lali (10.41%) and minimum (2.08%) in BARI F1 tomato-5 and Mintoo. No virus infected plants were found in the rest varieties.

The yield ranged from 64.92 to 93.21 t/ha. The maximum yield (93.21t/ha) was obtained from BARI F1 tomato-4 which is closely followed by Mintoo (91.35t/ha), Success (89.88 t/ha), Abhilash (89.68 t/ha) and BARI F1 tomato-5 (86.84 t/ha) while minimum yield was obtained from Delta (64.92 t/ha). In a study by Hasan et al. (2005) BARI tomato-6 produced higher yield (55.16 t ha 1) than BARI tomato-4 (51.8 t ha 1). BARI tomato-7 provides 84.9 t/ha yields (Ashrafuzzaman et al., 2010). It is observed that different yield potentialities were observed in different studies. This might be due to varation in genotype, seasons and experimental setup.

Table 2
Performance of 13 local and exotic hybrid tomato varieties during 2012-2013.

Name of varieties Fruit diameter (cm) No. of locule/fruit Thickness of pericarp (cm) TSS (%) Shelf  life (Days) Days to 1st harvest Virus infection (%) Yield (t/ha)
Local varieties
BARI F1 Tomato-4 4.36ef 3.07bcd 0.40b-d 4.90a 16.00ab 138.0e 0 93.21a
BARI F1 Tomato-5 5.41a 4.33a 0.39b-d 4.60a-c 7.00fg 145.0c 2.08 86.84a-c
BARI F1 Tomato-6 4.99a-c 4.00a 0.47ab 4.70ab 9.00ef 142.0d 0 74.39ef
BARI F1 Tomato-7 4.42d-f 3.13bc 0.47ab 4.00d 14.00bc 146.0c 4.16 70.53fg
BARI F1 Tomato-8 5.28a 4.20a 0.34d 5.00a 10.00e 138.0e 0 83.77b-d
Exotic varieties
Lali 4.88a-e 2.67c-e 0.40b-d 4.30b-d 11.00de 146.0c 10.41 83.78b-d
Abhilash 5.31a 3.20bc 0.37cd 4.20cd 5.00h 152.0ab 0 89.68ab
Nayak 4.67b-f 2.47e 0.52a 4.60a-c 7.00g 154.0a 0 79.62c-e
Moon 4.32f 2.27e 0.47ab 4.20cd 9.00ef 151.0b 4.16 78.36d-f
Delta 4.46c-f 2.13e 0.42b-d 4.43bc 18.00a 152.0ab 6.25 64.92g
Mintoo Super 5.06ab 3.20bc 0.45a-c 4.00d 13.00cd 153.0ab 0 73.88ef
Mintoo 4.22f 3.13bc 0.40b-d 5.00a 10.00e 145.0c 2.08 91.35ab
Success 4.92a-d 3.30b 0.46ab 4.70ab 9.00ef 146.0c 0 89.88ab

Means followed by same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 5% level.

Comparison of performance between local and exotic varieties

It is observed that flowering comes earlier in local varieties compared to exotic varieties. The growths of most of plants of both exotic and local varites are similar. Earlier harvest is possible for most of the local varieties compared to exotic varieties. The average yields of local and exotic varieties were almost same in this experiment. Virus infection to local varieties is less than the exotic varieties. Considering the above facts of earlier flowering, better growth performance, less virus infection less harvest time which can save the production cost and management, the local varieties can be used for substantial production of tomatoes in Bangladesh. However, this experiment deserves further study to evaluate the better performance of local varieties in Bangladesh.

REFERENCES

Steel RGD, Torrie JH and Dickie DA (1997). Principles and procedures of statistics – A  biometric  approach.  3rd  ed.  McGraw-Hill Publish. Co. Toronto, Canada.

Ashrafuzzaman M, Haque MA, Ismail MR, Islam MT and Shahidullah SM (2010). Genotypic and seasonal variation in plant development and yield attributes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Cultivars. International Journal of Botany, 6: 41-46.

Hasan MF, Ahmed B, Rahman MA, Alam MM and Khan MMH (2005). Environmental effect on growth and yield of tomato. Journal of Biological Sciences, 5 (6): 759-767.

Hossain MM, Khalequzzaman KM, Hossain MA, Mollah MRA and Siddique MA (2004). Influence of planting time on the extension of picking period of four tomato varieties. Journal of Biological Sciences, 4 (5): 616-619.

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